Foster Parenting Lesson 301: Vegans and Chicken Nuggets

Something I was reminded of during foster parenting training at Methodist Home for Children was about food insecurity. Food insecurity is something you and I probably have not actually experienced, aside from a delayed meal because of a meeting that went too long or the preacher preached too long on Sunday. Food insecurity derives from a constant exposure to an environment that lacks substantial nourishing food. A child, who hasn’t the means necessary to meet its needs, experiences food insecurity in a profound way. As a result, when a child comes to stay with a foster family the child may be prone to gorging themselves, not realizing that there will be another meal in the near future or even squirreling away food in their bedroom as a way to ensure that there will be something to eat. Such habits are hard to fathom, for how full are your cupboards with food?  

One foster parent shared how they will have freshly baked chocolate chip cookies for the child when he or she arrives. The aroma alone communicates welcome, warmth, and security.  Unfortunately, neither my wife or I bake. But we could offer Oreos. Which leads me to the place of creative problem solving. To meet children where they are at, and the most pressing needs, takes problem solving, something I’m any of you parents or grandparents knows about.  

Frist, the problem.  My wife and I are vegans (meaning we do not eat any meat or dairy). Shocker, I know.  Even more shocking, Oreos are vegan. I digress. Knowing that the child or children we may be placed with come from such food scarce environments, how should we address their needs for food?  Will we offer them our vegan delicacies? Or will we relearn how to cook meat? How will that work? Though not having all the answers to each particular case, I know that the primary need of the child is to feel secure. I cannot speak into that child’s life in a positive way if he or she is terrified of not having food or shelter or clothing. Meeting those needs are utmost important.  So the food I offer must be something he or she will eat. So if they will only eat chicken nuggets with ketchup and a side of Mac & Cheese, that’s what she will get. But you and I know that such a diet will not sustain a growing human body well or for long. So in addition to such a meal an alternate meal will also be offered too, such as a good salad with fake chicken OR black bean tacos OR fruit salad OR I could go on and on (frankly I’m getting hungry just thinking about all the delicious option so I’ll stop.)  

And now the solution. So the answer is..drum roll… both/and. We’ll provide what she will eat now and something we hope she will eat in time. Given time, and modeled well, children learn healthier habits as they see them firsthand in our lives.  Remember, Foster Parenting 101? Behavior is learned and therefore can be changed. Just as I hope the child will learn healthier eating habits, I hope, given time, and observed in our (this is the big “our” which includes you) lives the children will come to know Christ’s love and accept God’s love for them.  

Meeting children where they are at determines the kind of care each one will receive.  In a similar but not exact way, God meets us where we are at in our lives to provide for each of us the kind of love and care we need. God’s grace, God’s prevenient, grace meets us where we are at.  God doesn’t wait for us to stumble into the pastor’s office or the church sanctuary to meet us and our needs for love and acceptance but in our homes, our kitchens, our work, our cars. Prevenient grace is the grace often referred to as “fortunate” or “good luck” or “coincidence” by those outside the Faith. As such occasions, little does the person know that it’s God saying I love you. It’s God meeting the person where they are at. God doesn’t want the person to stay in that place, sustained by “coincidence” but to be lead on to a sustaining relationship with Christ.  

Unlike food insecurity, God’s grace is never in short supply. It’s never scarce, never running short. The cupboard is always full and overflowing, the refrigerator stuffed. It’s always more than enough, always. You may feel like you’ve missed the boat. That God has given up on you or a family member who has yet to come to faith in Jesus. Yet, that’s the good news, God never gives up on us, never. God’s grace is always secure.God’s prevenient grace provides for us enough nourishment to carry on until we’re ready to accept the wholesome, life giving, nourishment of justifying grace. It’s the grace that sets us upon the path to becoming whole and holy, that is the sanctifying grace.  

So friend, in what ways has God met you on your own terms, in what ways have you been surprised by God’s grace? Such answers are the stuff that make for a good witness to a world which has yet to know God’s nourishing grace. So share the stories of God’s grace knowing that you are filling the souls of those around you with the nourishment of God’s grace.


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Foster Parenting 101; Behavior is Learned and Therefore can be Changed

As many of you know, my wife and I have gone through training to become foster parents through the Methodist Home for Children.  We hope to be eligible for foster children come July. Once we’re eligible, then much in the way like Jesus’ second coming, no one knows the day nor the hour when the phone call will come and we welcome into our home children in need of foster care.  I thought I’d share with you over the next couple of articles a few bits of wisdom I learned during the training. The number one principle I learned is that behavior is learned and therefore can be changed

The first, behavior is learned and therefore can be changed, derives from behavioral studies that have shown that we are formed into habits.  That is to say, children (and adults!) learn how to interact with the world through our parents, our teachers, our friends, and our society in general.  If behavior is learned, then it means that it can change. That’s hopeful, not just for children who have learned bad behavior but also for us adults who have also learned bad behavior.  

Artists and musicians will tell you the same. Someone desiring to become a musician will learn to play by imitating his or her teacher or some other master of that instrument.  For me, when i first began to learn how to play guitar, it was Dave Matthews. I studied how he played, learned the chords he used, played his songs in the same way. Over time, I found that had become in general a better guitar player capable of playing a variety of music.  If I had copied someone who knew little of the guitar or didn’t know how to play the guitar well, my ability to play well would substantially different.

The great apostle Paul also knew something about behavior and how it can be changed.  He repeatedly writes to faith communities to imitate him as he imitates Christ. Our behavior changes as we learn to imitate others good behavior.  What Behaviorists won’t tell you. but the Apostle Paul will, is that true transformation comes by and through the Spirit of God (See Romans, especially chapters 8 & 12). Jesus offers us the picture of one who completely and utterly follows God’s will.  Jesus offers us a pattern of behavior to follow but it is the Holy Spirit that empowers us to be transformed.

Lacey and I are excited for this great opportunity to be foster parents.  We look forward to opening up our home to help care for children. Thank you for your prayers during this time of waiting and watching.  I’m excited for the changes and transformations that are to come. Pray that we will be open to the transforming work of the Spirit. I pray that you too will be open to God’s transforming work.  




Rev. Matt Seaton

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Foster Parenting Lesson 201; Reconcilers not Rescuers

What’s the goal? Ever asked yourself that question? What’s the goal or point of this project or job? Or an even deeper question, what’s the point of life? What is it that you hope to achieve when the clock on your life has finally stopped ticking? (Wow! These questions escalated quickly!) As serious as that question might be, it’s an altogether important one to ask yourself, from time to time. It keeps you on the path towards the end. I was reminded of the importance of this question during foster parenting class training.

In our second class, the facilitators asked this very question in relation to foster parenting. What’s the goal of foster parenting? Is it to keep children safe by rescuing them from toxic situations? Or is it reunification with their biological parents? The goal, most agreed upon, was a little of both, to provide a safe, stable environment for children and reunification, if at all possible, with their biological parents. Though having agreed upon this goal, the way in which foster parenting happens the biological parent and the foster parent end up viewing each other as opposed to one another. The biological parent has his or her child taken from them by the state, without much notification, and then placed with strangers. The social worker is then viewed as aligned with the foster parents, though facilitating monthly visits, the social worker seems to be keeping a long list of ways in which the biological parent has failed to meet the standard of parenting. The foster parents, along with their friends and family, on the other hand, can easily come to view the biological parent as a threat to the child’s wellbeing and easily rationalize ways in which to prevent the child from reviving a healthy relationship with the biological parent. The social worker, here again, can be viewed as having sided with the biological parent as the social worker appears to be working towards returning the child to the originating parent. Hostility, anger, bitterness, resentment, and pain have quickly rushed in and made any sort of peace seemingly impossible.

At this moment, it’s good to take a deep breath.

In such a scenario, you’re probably asking yourself, what about the child?! What’s best for the child? Ah, ha! That’s the question. What’s the end goal of this entire process? It’s what’s best for the child. Rather than envisioning the above scenario, with it’s us versus them complexities, envision not a line in the sand separating one from the other but envision a circle of people surrounding the child, working towards providing the best for that child. Ideally, the child should live with her biological parents, because what child wouldn’t want to be with momma or daddy? Foster parents, friends, extended family members, and social workers aim to make this possible. No one should be estranged from their parents. But sometimes children cannot live with their parents because the situation is just too toxic. In these cases, adoption works best. That said, when you picture the goal as reunification, then the way in which you approach foster parenting changes. Foster parents are reconcilers not rescuers.

Our aim as Christians is reconciliation with God and one another. The finality of this world is the great reconciliation, when all things on heaven and on earth shall be fully restored and reconciled. Heaven is shorthand for this vision that Christians journey towards. Our work here and now, as we await Christ’s second coming, is towards reconciliation with one another, creation, and God. Just as children may not return to their orginiting families for some time, perhaps for a lifetime, so we may not be able to fully reconcile with some people now. It may not happen on this side of heaven. In such cases, forgiveness is emailed, texted, snail mailed, to the other until in the end heaven arrives. And here’s the point, God, in Jesus Christ, reconciles us to one another but does not finally rescue us from each other. Let’s learn to live with one another in love and reconciliation, refusing to imagine a world with a line in the sand, but a circle of all people surrounding in worship and adoration, the one who made peace for us through his death on a cross.




Rev. Matt Seaton


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Election 2016 or Time for a Moral Inventory

The 2016 Election season has been one of surprises and not the good kind, though some are still waiting for someone to yell surprise, jokes on you, America, they aren’t the the real candidates.  This, however, is not the case.  America has two candidates who fall below the line of desirability.  Yet, people are still advocating for, fighting for, doing violence to one another on behalf of theses candidates, candidates whom they don’t really like.

Reader, I could throw my stones at each of these powerful contenders of the throne, but I will do my best to resist.  I’ll resist because I believe the situation we have found ourselves in is one which we have created ourselves.  Want to know how we ended up here?  Take a look at American society in general and you’ll find that this election mirrors our society.  Everything we despise about the election this year indicates to us what is out of place in our society, in our daily lives.  The deception is that we think these ills only reside in the individuals who are up for election.  Trumps treatment of women and the growing number of women who have come out on social media to tell of how they have been sexually assaulted is a low hanging fruit which demonstrates my point.  It turns out that Trump’s not the only one to (supposedly) participate in such behavior, there are thousands, perhaps in the millions, of men and women who have done similar acts as Trump.  Hilary doesn’t escape such examination, either.  The leaked emails only goes to show how the politically powerful manage the affairs of the American people while doing so without much of a vote.  In a democracy, you would expect outrage and a call to withdrawal from the election.  This hasn’t been the case, outside of talking heads with other agendas for her stepping down.  We, the American people, don’t do more than blink and then carry on with our lives.  Our deepest suspicions have been confirmed.  We knew this is how the world worked, and it turns out it does.  The collective cynicism has made possible a world where outrage against such manipulations of the system has become weak, sickly, and almost nonexistent.

Yes, this is a grave situation and one which ought to cause the American society as a whole to pause, reflect, and take in what AA calls a moral inventory.  John Wesley began a movement by organizing people into groups wherein which people took moral inventory every week and confessed to one another their sins.  As with AA, it’s more than a time of confessing and feeling bad for what has been done or what hasn’t been done but a time for forgiveness, reconciliation and most importantly accountability.  If we can learn to confess to another, then perhaps we might learn to tell the truth.  In telling the truth, we might learn how to live in such a way where “rape culture” becomes an artifact in the American past.

It’s too much, I know, to ask America to organize into small groups for such purposes.  I know this because society at large lost it’s desire to listen to the church, and there are many reasons for that.  But I hope, this election cycle will cause us all to stop, pause, reflect upon how we have made possible a world where deception, lying, sexual abuse, greed, and a host of other immoral behavior has become part and parcel of the American political system.  As I throw this stone, I know that I too am complicit.  I have kept my mouth shut when I should have spoken up.  I have called both candidate names which no one should be called.  Reader, I could carry on with my confession for days.  So for now, I must say, Lord, in your mercy, hear my prayer…

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The Crumbs of Hope

Title:  The Crumbs of Hope

Theme:  God uses faithful actions to sustain the Church while it waits for God’s year of jubilee.

Scripture:  Preaching Text; Hebrews 11:1-3, 8-16  Secondary text;  Genesis 21:1-7

Genesis 21:1-7 NRSV

The Lord dealt with Sarah as he had said, and the Lord did for Sarah as he had promised. 2 Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age, at the time of which God had spoken to him. 3 Abraham gave the name Isaac to his son whom Sarah bore him. 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him. 5 Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him. 6 Now Sarah said, “God has brought laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh with me.” 7 And she said, “Who would ever have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.”


Hebrews 11:1-3, 8-16 NRSV

Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 Indeed, by faith our ancestors received approval. 3 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was made from things that are not visible.

8 By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to set out for a place that he was to receive as an inheritance; and he set out, not knowing where he was going. 9 By faith he stayed for a time in the land he had been promised, as in a foreign land, living in tents, as did Isaac and Jacob, who were heirs with him of the same promise. 10 For he looked forward to the city that has foundations, whose architect and builder is God. 11 By faith he received power of procreation, even though he was too old—and Sarah herself was barren—because he considered him faithful who had promised. 12 Therefore from one person, and this one as good as dead, descendants were born, “as many as the stars of heaven and as the innumerable grains of sand by the seashore.”

13 All of these died in faith without having received the promises, but from a distance they saw and greeted them. They confessed that they were strangers and foreigners on the earth, 14 for people who speak in this way make it clear that they are seeking a homeland. 15 If they had been thinking of the land that they had left behind, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; indeed, he has prepared a city for them.


So Sarah, uh, how does, uh, moving sound?  

Moving?  Where?  Do you mean to the big room in your father’s house?  Has your father passed?

Sarah!  No, no.  

Then where?

Um, uh, I don’t really know.  

Excuse me?  Then why?  

Um, uh, well, see, uh, this god, Elohim, said to me to leave my father’s household and move.  

This God said what?  

To move.  To leave UR, take all of our possessions and move to a land that will be shown to us.  In fact, not only will we be given an entire country, we will have an entire nation come through us!  

You mean through me.

Well, you know what I mean.

Abram.  Do you believe this God?  

I do.  

<><><>Unfortunately, we do not have such details.  Nor do we know what it must have been like to tell his father that he wasn’t going to stick around to carry on the family business, worship the family gods, and accept his inheritance.  Today’s passage from Hebrews comments on the lives of Abraham and Sarah, which can be found in Genesis 12-25.  The writer of Hebrews, whoever she was, offers up in this chapter examples of faithful and faithfilled saints.  These saints offer up for the people of God signs of hope, or crumbs of hope, for they do not satisfy our desire but nourish our faith.  We don’t know how that went.  All we know, is that he encountered God and said yes, his life was never the same.  

Abraham, a young man of 75, lived in the land of Ur of the Chaldeans under his father’s household.  It’s normal for sons and daughters to grow up, move away to college, choose a profession,  and move to different cities.  Back then, the sons carried on the profession of their fathers.  With the family profession came also the family inheritance.  At 75, Abraham was close to receiving the family inheritance.  All that his father and his father’s father had worked for and accumulated, was to be his.  We do not know much about Abram before God called to Abram.  What we know is that, at the age of 75, Abram, with the promise of his father’s inheritance about to become a reality, said yes to God’s calling, to pack up his bags and move to a land he had never heard..   

<><><>Our Hebrews passage today, says, “Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.”  Abraham was sure that God would deliver upon what was promised.  He did not know or see the land to which he was called to dwell in.  He did not know how a city would come to be established for him and his family to dwell, but he knew that this was the God of hope.

<><><>Time continued on for Abraham.  God led him to the land of Canaan, Abraham’s new home.  Abram’s flocks grew, he became wealthy.  Flocks are good and increase in laborers is good but it it’s still not a city.  A city is something permanent.  It’s something stable.  It’s safe, secure.  It includes citizenship and all the benefits therein.  It’s hard to say you’re a citizen when you’re on the move.  Living in a tent, as a herdsman, keeps you moving.  Keeps you from putting down too deep of roots.  You know that things are about to change again when you’re living in this way.  Yet, Abram and Sarah continued to be without a child and still living in a tent.  No city.  No nation.  No children.  If you’re going to have a nation come through you, then you need children.  It’s a scientific fact.  Abraham is now 99, nearly 25 years have passed since God called him away from his home land, from comfort and stability.  25 years is a long time to live in a tent.  You may enjoy camping but 25 years is a very long time, especially when are hoping for a city.  God appears to Abraham again and makes a covenant with him.  Through Abraham and Sarah, they will be not an ancestor of just one nation, as originally promised, but of a multitude of nations.  What?!?  At the age of 99?  What is this God some sort of sick joke?  People do not have children at the age of 99? But Abraham and Sarah believed God at God’s word.  A year later, Abraham and Sarah found themselves holding a baby boy whom they named Isaac.

<><><><>The writer of Hebrews, states, “Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 Indeed, by faith our ancestors received approval.” By faith, Abraham and Sarah waited for God.  In faith, they found God’s approval.  God’s approval came in the confirmation of hope. But the hope that was confirmed was not a complete hope.  It was a crumb of the very hope itself.  It was miniscule in comparison to the entirety of the promise.  That moment, when they finally held Isaac in their hands and experienced such joy, pales in comparison to the rest of the promise.  Nation upon nation shall come through Abraham and Sarah and they will not even be around to see it.  They are still living in tents with the promise of a city to come.

<><><><>We may speak of Abraham, Sarah, and all of the Old Testament figures as examples but they never set out to be examples.  They lived faithful lives to God as they journeyed towards God’s future.  This is the stuff that makes up the crumbs of hope, the evidences of God’s work in the world, the hope that proclaims that today does not have to be a repeat of yesterday.  The best evidences of God’s activity in the world is not by way of philosophical argument, though those arguments do have their place, but in the lives of the saints.  The best argument for God’s existence are the stories of the saints.  It’s a life faithfully lived to God in hope of God’s future for the world.  These are the lives that make up the crumbs of hope for a world dwindling into despair.

<><><><>The lives of Abraham and Sarah show us that the world of faith is a world of hope.  Each new day offers a promise of hope that things shall be different. This is so because they are miraculous lives of hope.  The kind of hope that’s placed in our own achievements and abilities has it’s place but it is not the biblical hope.  To say, I hope to see all 50 states in my lifetime.  Is certainly a hope and with enough planning and saving, I could see all 50 states.  THIS IS NOT A GOD SIZED HOPE.  It’s not the hope of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.  It’s not the hope of Jesus.  (SLOW DOWN)

Divine hope takes shape when it extends beyond our own capacities to navigate the world.  Duke Divinity’s Chuck Campbell once observed that hope is divine when it confounds us, even as it claims us, spoken in love, service, and words that no one will believe: words like, “All will be well.” These words “posit eternity to those that only want an end, caught in the daily ritual of counting food and time.”  The way of Jesus requires a miraculous way of living, a way that seeks to love your enemy, bless those who persecute you.  If we think the moral demands of Jesus are easy, then we are not following Jesus.  If you think that Jesus died and rose again to make you a better American citizen, then you’re not following Jesus. We are following something else – a god in our own image.  Jesus’ work upon the cross made possible for us to become citizens of God’s kingdom.  That is to say the faithful living of the Bible, is a life that identifies first as a citizen of God’s kingdom and then as a stranger and sojourner of any and all earthly nations.  To follow Jesus is to rely upon the Spirit of God to give us the miraculous virtues of faith, hope and love.


<<<OPTIONAL>>>>  People such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. offer us modern day examples of what it means to live with a God sized hope.  It is a testament that the civil rights movement under his leadership did not turn to violence to accomplish their desires.  It is a testament to the power of the life of faith that follows after the God of hope.  


<><><>The faith of our Fathers and Mothers, which inspires us to hope in the God of Abraham and Sarah, are the a kind of lives that cannot be understood apart from faith in God.  For their very patterns of life depended upon the God who calls in the night to tell Abraham that the land of Canaan shall be his and his descendants shall outnumber the stars.  It’s the same sort of logic that sees a loaf of bread and cup of juice and believes it to be more than just a snack. We call it a meal, yet what we have when we take of communion is a small hunk of bread and a taste of juice.  We say this is the body of Christ given for you and this is the blood of Christ shed for you.  It’s bread and it’s juice but it’s so much more.  It is a crumb of hope that reminds us that one day we shall feast at the Lord’s table.

<><><><>At the Lord’s table we are given a promise that one day we shall all be at the table feasting and celebrating together – both saints of old and saints of new.  It’s at this feast where Jew and Gentile shall share bread together.  Where Conservative and Liberal will sit next together in harmony.  It shall be a feast where all are invited.  Rich and poor.  White and black.  And all the colors of the rainbow shall be welcomed to feast.  The food and drink shall not run out.  This is the promise of God for the people of God that gives us a vision of hope that draws us into God’s future.  For in faith, we taste God’s future when we celebrate communion together and when that celebration resembles God’s future, which is our sure and certain hope.  


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My first exploration into the world of theological ethics and disabilities.

In the following, drawing upon scripture, tradition, practical reason and experience, I will argue that friendship with those who have severe and profound disabilities offers a way of living that inculcates the virtues necessary for the Church to be the Church. Implicit in this statement is that there is an “us and them” dichotomy and because there is such a split necessitates this paper. As Stanley Hauerwas rightly reminds us, we are all on a continuum of disabilities.[1] Communities such as L’Arche do not populate the Church world. They stand at the margins of Church ministries. Though doing wonderful work with people who have disabilities, these types of ministries signify the brokenness within the Church and underwrite the “us/them” dichotomy. Drawing from scripture, tradition, and personal experience, I hope to show that rather than being at the margins our friends with disabilities should sit at the heart of the Church.

My own experience with our friends who have special needs derives from a few sources. Most personally, my father was in a motorcycle accident nearly a decade ago, which has caused long-term physical and mental impairment. In addition, my home church had a vital ministry with people who have disabilities. A church I served as an associate pastor some time later had little in the way of ministry for or with those with disabilities. Finally, the tradition I belong to, The Wesleyan Church, has in its Discipline the doctrinal statement that those with severe and profound disabilities are saved. It states, “It is unconditionally effective in the salvation of those mentally incompetent from birth, of those converted persons who have become mentally incompetent, and of children under the age of accountability.”[2] However incompetent may be understood, the implications for such a doctrine are outstanding. Within a Wesleyan theological framework, those who are fully competent are not fully saved until fully in heaven. It stands to reason that those who are understood be fully saved should be those to whom the church would pay the most attention to with their resources and attention.[3] Yet, a thorough search of The Wesleyan Church’s website yields little in this regard. Out of my own experiences, reflections and this odd reality within my own tradition has caused me to search for ways in which the church may remedy this discrepancy.

Scriptural Witness: The Gospels, Paul, and David

Scripture is replete with both narrative examples, laws, and commands concerning people with disabilities. In fact, scripture can be as helpful as it can be hurtful when thinking through these issues. In the OT, proverbs and parts of the law in the Torah speak of sin causing the physical and mental impairments. In the NT, Jesus says of the man born blind that his blindness comes not from sin so much as it does so that God’s glory may be shown. God causing disabilities so that God might receive glory helps navigate the treatment of our friends as much as naming moral sin as the cause. The causation then of disabilities appears to be in dispute and whatever the cause, social interaction remains the scope of this investigation. Knowing that those who have disabilities by and large live within the margins of societies, the key then is to look at how stories of marginalized characters were treated. Beginning with Jesus, then Paul, and finally a look at a Mephibosheth, I will show that in Jesus, God has shown a preference for those who live on the confined spaces of society.

Despite religious categories of clean and unclean, Jesus gives attention to those who sit at the confined spaces of society. John 4, Jesus takes time to rest near a well while his disciples go on to get supplies. This well, the narrator tells us, is in Samaria. Good Jews do not associate with Samaritans. Jesus finds himself very comfortable speaking to this woman, comfortable enough to speak about her dubious past. This woman, like Samaria, is on the margins as she has had multiple husbands and lives with a man who is not her current husband. Day time soap operas are made of such stories. He asks her for water, and he offers her eternal water – water that cures your thirst. Jesus chooses her to reveal to first that he is the promised messiah. He does not condemn her or engage in divisive rhetoric about religion. He meets her where she is at, and she is changed and consequently her entire village changes too. Jesus bewilders his disciples by such acts and he continuously bewilders us today. What is interesting in this exchange is that Jesus and the woman offer to each other gifts. There resides a mutuality and trust that makes possible life. She trusts him with knowledge about her life and Jesus trusts her with the knowledge that he is the promised messiah.

Those who lie on the outskirts of society, who live in institutions, suffer from fear, hurt, loneliness. The woman at the well was socially disabled by her past. However, she is the one who brings salvation to her village. Jesus overcame her feelings of isolation and hurt through her inclusion into his story. The disciples, who knew more about Jesus than the woman, were still left in the dark about the identity of Jesus and his true identity. Fellowship with the vulnerable allows for possibilities of understanding Jesus, which would not be otherwise available.

More than using such occasions for teaching opportunities for the disciples, Jesus befriended the marginal. The religious and political leaders, the antagonists in the Gospels, label him a drunkard and a glutton because he has spent an extravagant amount of time with the outcasts of the religious society. The story of Zacchaeus exemplifies this.[4] Zacchaeus, a tax collector and, therefore, an unpopular and marginal character, eagerly awaits Jesus’ visit to his town. He climbs a tree just so he could get a good seat at the parade. Jesus responds to his enthusiasm by joining Zacchaeus for dinner. At the meal, Zaccheaus becomes so overwhelmed that he declares that he will return a majority of what he has taken from the people in his tax dealings. Jesus then pronounces that salvation has come to his house. What is most extraordinary about this story is the table fellowship. Table fellowship for Jews is an intimate space where only friends and family are allowed. The table fellowship, which Jesus participated in, allows for questions about who is at the table. Who is allowed? Who is invited?

Jesus not only associated and privileged the marginal he taught that they should be so. In Matthew 25, Jesus tells of what will happen in the last days.[5] In this particular passage Jesus says that those who serve the under resourced are serving not only the under resourced but Jesus himself. Behind the eyes of each person who finds themselves on the margins lies Jesus’ presence. The actions towards the under resourced, whether for or against, are taken into account by God in the final judgment.   How we treat those who find themselves on the outskirts of society whether that is financially, socially, or physically, Jesus resides there.

We have looked at Jesus to make the case that Jesus befriends those on the margin and also that how we treat them matters deeply to our relationship with God, but what about the rest of the witness of scripture? In I Cor. 12, Paul argues against the privileging of only one gift. He argues that each person has been given the manifestation of the Spirit that has been given for up-building of the church. Furthermore, he states, “On the contrary, those members that seem to be weaker are essential, and those members we consider less honorable we clothe with greater honor and our unpresentable members are clothed with dignity, but our presentable members do not need this. Instead, God has blended together the body, giving greater honor to the lesser member…”[6] Those within the Church who appear to be of lesser importance or incapable of giving to the up-building of the church are the very ones who are to be treated with honor and dignified. In relation to the body, Paul says we honor our reproductive organs by clothing them. Now relating people who have special needs with the reproductive organs of the body is not flattering. However, with some thought, the powerful point opens up that those who are thought of being unable or incapable of adding to the life of the Church are the very ones who make possible life.

This way of thinking for Paul, honoring and giving importance to the weaker members, is the very way God operates in the world. Earlier in I Cor. 1-18-31, Paul assaults the very notions wisdom and power of the world. All that the world has thought to be power and wisdom was shown to be foolishness by God through the incarnation, crucifixion and resurrection. God chose to do this and God chose the weak, the foolish, and the marginal to announce the Gospel to the world of supposed power and wisdom. God operates by and through people whom the world considers to be unable to do that very thing.

This logic finds itself through the entire witness of scripture. One final story comes from the OT in II Samuel 9. Mephibosheth, Saul’s only remaining heir, lives in Jerusalem disabled by lame feet. Rather than have him killed, the now king of Isreal, David invites Mephibosheth to daily join the meals at David’s house. He is not only an honored guest but a part of the family. Surrounded by great warriors and accomplished politicians, Mephibosheth ate and shared table fellowship with them all.

Friendship, honor, dignity, mutuality and table fellowship characterize God’s treatment of the marginalized. Each theme fuels the imagination for possibilities ministry that create centralized space within the walls of the church for people on the margins, specifically those with disabilities. These themes will take on flesh in the following section on practitioners.

Practitioners: Henri Nouwen, Jean Vanier and L’Arche

As it currently stands, L’Arche symbolizes the contemporary scene for effective ministry with our friends who have disabilities. That is to say they operate apart from and outside of the walls of the church. L’Arche, though begun by a Christian, takes no doctrinal stand so that it may operate within a diversity of cultures. Not only are there Christian oriented L’Arche communities but there are also Muslim operated L’Arche communities.[7] In the following, Henri Nouwen and Jean Vaneir, two of the most well known members of L’Arche, will offer examples of contemporary significance.

Adam: God’s Beloved by Henri Nouwen offers for us a glimpse into to the world of L’Arche. “L’Arche is an international federation of communities, based on the Beatitudes and founded by Canadian Jean Vanier in 1964.”[8]      Jean Vanier initially started them when he invited two young men to live with him. Out of that experience, L’Arche was born. Important to note is that he had no other plan than to invite these new friends into his life and to live with them. “L’Arche believes that ‘people with a mental handicap often possess qualities of welcome, wonderment, spontaneity, and directness’ and that ‘they are a living reminder to the wider world of the essential value of the heart’.”[9] Nouwen, a well-known Catholic theologian and spiritual leader, who taught at Harvard, moved to Day Break Community in Toronto, part of L’Arche, to live with the community. There he was asked to devote part of his daily schedule to helping Adam.

Adam, at the time in his 20s, had been born with epilepsy. Later it would be discovered that he had hearing impairments too. Moreover, he never learned to talk. Because of these disabilities and the doctor missteps, Adam was totally and completely dependent upon others to care for him.[10] His parents, who had another child with disabilities named Mike, spent most of Adam’s life trying to find a community that would care for Adam as they aged. They could not even find a place for Adam in their local church.[11] Finally, after many prayers and years of searching, they found L’Arche.

Adam had only been living in L’Arche for a short time before Nouwen came to live there. In Adam, Nouwen found a spiritual leader. According to Nouwen, Adam had few distractions and attachments as well as few ambitions to fill his interior life, Adam was free from what otherwise inhibits spiritual growth. This detachment from worldly desires of ambition and achievement produced within Adam an inner light. He says, “Like Jesus, his belovedness, his likeness to God, his mission of peace could be acknowledged only by those who were willing to welcome him as one sent by God.”[12]In attending to Adam, Nouwen found that the urges inculcated by society for success based upon appearance, material wealth, and intellectual success quieted down. Adam allows space for Nouwen to see Nouwen for who he truly is, the beloved of God who is unconditionally loved. For Nouwen, Adam would ground visions of grandeur and speculative theology.

He recounts that caring for Adam, dressing him, feeding him, brushing his teeth, and spending time with him was difficult at first. Over time, this became easier as Nouwen began to learn Adam’s language. “Adam was communicating with me, and he was consistent in reminding me that he wanted and needed me to be with him unhurriedly and gently. He was clearly asking me if I was willing to follow his rhythm and adapt my ways to his needs. I found myself beginning to understand a new language, Adam’s language.”[13] Language becomes key for entering into the world of our vulnerable friends. Language, like all new languages, takes time and immersion into that world. In learning Adam’s language, Nouwen underwent an inner change where he saw Adam as his spiritual guide and discovered gifts within Adam necessary for the Church.

Jean Vanier, in From Brokenness to Community his recorded lectures at Harvard, underscores much of what has been pointed out by Nouwen. He states, “And I come here to tell you how much life these people have given me, that they have an incredible gift to bring to our world, that they are a source of hope, peace and perhaps salvation for our wounded world, and that if we are open to them, if we welcome them, they give us life and lead us to Jesus and the good news.”[14] Here, Vanier further specifies the possible gifts the vulnerable have to offer to the Church. These gifts no less entail the theological virtues of faith, hope, and love necessary for the Church to be the Church within the World. What connects “us” to “them” for Vanier is the need for communion, compassion and community.[15] This need is an emotional need and one that is felt by all. The more able-bodied person finds success, the more lonely they become. This becomes all the more powerful when those whom we consider to be the broken reveal to us our own brokenness.

Vanier picks up on what Nouwen learned in his time with Adam, language matters. The language spoken by those who have severe and profound disabilities is an unspoken language. Knowing body language and what the body communicates opens the doors to the community to which the Church is called to. To know that language must mean that the Church spends time with and be with the vulnerable for long periods of time. Learning a language means learning culture. In learning the culture, those who live in a context that seemingly demands constant flux to keep ahead of the competition will learn the need for constancy of place and space.

That language can also be the language of those with mental disabilities whose speech patterns may be different from ours. Hauerwas tells of Gary who happened to have mental disabilities and how the local church Hauerwas attended included Gary in the worship service.   “Gary also read Scripture. It would take a long time. However for the church to learn to wait for the lesser member to speak in the Pauline sense is to witness to the world a different way of living in time. We live by slowing down and saying with our lives that the world will not be saved by frantic activity. If time has already been redeemed by Jesus, we learn to wait on the salvation of the Lord by taking time to listen to our weakest members.”[16] Learning the language of our friends who happen to have disabilities may also be learning the practices that announce salvation to the world.

Lastly, Vanier also points out that there are three practices that make for the community. The first is eating together around the same table. The second is praying together. And the third is celebrating together.[17] These practices easily correspond to the Eucharist. In the Eucharist, the Church gathers at the table, prays together, and then celebrates what God has done through Jesus’ death and resurrection. Knowing the language of our friends aids us in knowing if each participant would want to partake of the Eucharist or rather receive a blessing. Knowing their language includes and opens up doors of participation.

Friends, like Adam, open up new possibilities for understanding how we do Church. It implies that the Church becomes multi-lingual. The grammar of faith includes multiple languages and with it multiple groups of people. Adam also ensures that the Church is not to be caught up in the need to compete with the World by slowing down the Church in its practices. This is achieved through learning new languages. Vanier reminds us of the necessity of community that is defined by prayer, eating together, and celebration. This would include the regular practice of the Eucharist. Those who speak different languages gathered around for a feast celebrating the gift of life and community.

Practitioners Cont.: Refining Friendship

The project thus far could run the risk of using those who are most vulnerable to further the ends of the Kingdom of God. In other words, what safeguards the vulnerable from those who want to profit from their vulnerability? Surely, while sin remains the temptation to exploitation of the vulnerable will always be lurking but that is not to lapse into a skepticism that inevitably falls prey to apathy and despair. Christopher Heuertz and Christine Pohl in Friendship at the Margins; Discovering Mutuality in Service and Mission explores the concept friendship and with it hospitality as a mode of mission for the Church. [18] Here, I will explore more the concept of friendship as they have presented it knowing that good friendship entails a certain degree of hospitality.[19] Practicing friendship and hospitality with our vulnerable friends will help to safeguard the Church’s practices from exploitation.

Pohl and Heuertz write, “Jesus offers us friendship, and that gift shapes a surprisingly subversive missional paradigm. A grateful response to God’s gift of friendship involves offering that same gift to others— whether family or strangers, coworkers or children who live on the street. Offering and receiving friendship breaks down the barriers of “us” and “them” and opens up possibilities of healing and reconciliation.”[20] The authors begin at the right place; that is Jesus. God through Jesus offers to all friendship. Friendship is at the heart because reconciliation is as the heart of what Jesus is doing in the entire world.[21] That unqualified friendship to all goes against Aristotle’s notion of friendship based upon equality of virtue. Aristotle envisions a friendship based upon complete equality. Befriending someone who cannot share in exact and equal ways does not fit this paradigm. The friendship offered to the world by Jesus does not offer a quid pro quo. It is a gracious act to the other. What is most remarkable is that those who Pohl and Heuertz offer friendship to them. Even more remarkable is the friendship offered by people like Adam to others. Certainly, this is an act of grace. These friendships refuse to manipulate the other in hopes that they will believe or act in some such way.[22] These friendships, rooted in the model established by God through Jesus, accept the other in hopes of establishing a relationship of trust, truth-telling, and mutuality.

Pohl and Heuertz reflect deeply upon the incarnation and that God dwelt amongst us. For them, this deeply challenges cause/driven models of mission. “Cause-driven models of mission, advocacy and relief often allow contributors/ donors to provide help at a distance, captured by the concern but disconnected from the actual persons most affected by it.”[23] These relationships create a dependency model and lead to manipulation. Heuertz’ challenges the “grant-giving culture” that offers conditional relationships that run contrary to the model offered to us in Christ. Heuertz’s commitment to his friends protects himself and his friends from relationships weakened by manipulation and. Models of mission and ministry based on friendship characterized by fidelity and trust allows for an ongoing community of love.[24]Friendship of this quality is by nature vulnerable and open. It risks manipulation, hurt, and pain in hopes of creating community.

This friendship also feeds into advocacy within the larger world. That is to say it is a political act. Advocacy for justice becomes a personal matter when it is our friends who are in trouble. For Heuertz and Pohl, that means advocating specifically for those who are financially under-resourced but can be easily expanded to include our friends with special needs. That advocacy includes fighting for their existence in society to be sure but also that there are adequate resources available for their flourishing. Moreover, it challenges us to rethink how we spend our time and our resources. Friendships undermine our tendency to locate the problem “out there” and to try to fix it at a distance. “… Friendship gives an urgency to our work for justice, to our search for ways to affect the decisions of multinationals and governments. Friends who are poor challenge our lifestyles of consumption when they build generous and gracious lives out of very few material resources.”[25] In other words, leaving the responsibility of care and happiness of our friends with special needs solely to any government betrays our commitments to them as friends and loved ones. Changing the church budget to accommodate the needs of our friends further underwrites the commitment necessary to live with one another as friends.

Fundamental to these friendships is mutuality and trust. If only one person in the relation feels that they have gifts to offer to the other then, the relationship will not reach its fullest potential. True friendship allows for both to offer gifts of hospitality, resources, and spiritual nourishment. This is best expressed in sharing a meal together. Table fellowship allows for these friendships to be nourished and breaks down social boundaries.[26] The authors rightly note that, ” An important spiritual discipline around meals is to ask ourselves regularly, With whom am I eating? Who is invited, and who is left out? Our meals become kingdom meals especially when people who are usually overlooked find a place— a place of welcome and value.”[27] Returning to an early observation, the Eucharist as the Church’s meal offers a way to ask these same questions. Who is at our table? With whom are we eating?

If the friendship is about hospitality and mutuality, the way we order our space and time will greatly be affected. Our vulnerable friends who participate in worship need constancy in the order of life. They live their lives, but structure, and drastic changes to that structure greatly affect them. This goes against the grain of church growth models that promote continuous change in the order of service, décor, and technology so as to stay relevant and interesting. That structure forms their lives, and if heeded forms the lives of all who participate in the constant order of worship.[28]

Bringing it home: Ways Forward for the Church

John Swinton rightly grounds ministry to those who have severe and profound disabilities. He states, “Negotiating the world of disability and the world of people who don’t consider themselves disabled can be tragic, frustrating and deeply joyful all at the same time! However such encounters carry the potential to transform our friendships, our politics and our spirituality.”[29] This observation helps to curtail any idealist notions of working with our friends who have disabilities. The stories of the practitioners from which I draw upon would all agree to this observation. These friendships go beyond notions of inner satisfaction knowing that you are doing some good. Rather, these friendships are political acts that make possible a world where time and space are reordered that challenge the Western World’s priorities of efficiency and effectiveness, producer and consumer, and need for achievement.

When I was just entering my teenage years and my father was pastoring, my mother had a wonderful yet unnerving idea for our church’s annual Christmas play. “Let’s have those in our special needs class be the stars of the show!” The script was written; the parts were cast, and the play was rehearsed. My mother strategically included people from other adult Sunday school classes to also participate so as to include all. When Mary, played by Brenda (who happened to have downs syndrome), along with Joseph, (another special needs class member) arrived at the inn, they were met by the innkeeper played by Dennis. Dennis had autism and Tourette’s syndrome, and was often quite vocal when changes occurred in the service. With the whispered prompting of my Dad, (his close friend who stood next to him as support), Dennis loudly proclaimed, “NO ROOM IN THE INN!”, but had first interjected “Turn down that damn light?” The spotlight in the balcony was blinding him! We all chuckled at his simple blunt honesty.[30]

What this story suggests to the church is that the friendship with those who have disabilities means spending intentional time outside of Sunday’s service. Friendships cannot be built within an hour a week. It signifies that participation within the life of the church must also be intentional and imaginative, going beyond what is taken as “normal”. Dennis’ outburst reminds us that professionalism does not necessarily triumph, but community does. Community too is made possible by truth telling.

I served as an assistant pastor at a fast-growing church in Williston, North Dakota. When I left the church to come to Duke, they were near 800 in average attendance, and yet Stephen was the only one in all the church who had a disability! The church building was new enough that it was accessible for all, and yet there was only one disabled person out of 800! Having or providing accessibility does not imply attendance. Nor does having a large and growing church necessitate a healthy ministry to the vulnerable.

In contrast, my home church had a rather large group of special needs friends. This was accomplished in part by the relationship established with the Black Hills Workshop. TheBlack Hills Workshop provides semi-independent living as well as training and jobs for those who have disabilities. Black Hills Workshop would often bring some residents over to participate in worship. Most every week congregants would go and pick others up, as the church provided a Sunday school class for them. What stands as the starkest of contrasts is that, unlike the church in Williston, my home church was not very accessible for those with handicaps. It was a two-story building built into the side of a hill, without an elevator. Those with wheelchairs and walkers had to go outside of the church and walk around one end of the building and down to access the lower level. And yet that Sunday school class was “a hit” – important not only to those who attended but to the entire church body, as well.

In Jesus’ prayer, in John 17, right before he is betrayed by Judas and sentenced to crucifixion by Pilate, he asks that we might be one as he is one with the Father. That in that unity, the world, would see the love of God. L’Arche offers a profound witness to the world and to the Church. The witness it offers to the Church is that it is not united with its friends. If they are the saved and are found more at home in communities that lie outside of the walls of the Church then, it is with little wonder that the world does not see the love of God within the walls of the Church. Friendship, which entails table fellowship at the Eucharist, offers a way forward for the Church to become united to friends such as Adam and Dennis. If, and only if, these practices are made primary will the Church grow in the virtues necessary to reflects to the World the reality of the resurrection and the salvation to come.

Works Cited


Nouwen, Henri J. M.. Adam; God’s Beloved. Orbis Books. Maryknoll, 1997.

Hauerwas, Stanley. Approaching the End; Eschatological Reflections on Church, Politics, and

Life. Eerdmans. Grand Rapids, 2013.

Hauerwas, Stanley. Dispatches from the Front; Theological Engagements with the Secular.

Duke University Press. Durham, 1994

Hauerwas, Stanley; Jean Vanier. Living Gently in a Violent World: The Prophetic Witness of

Weakness (Resources for Reconciliation) (Kindle Locations 45-47). Kindle Edition.

Heuertz, Christopher L.; Pohl, Christine D. (2010-02-25). Friendship at the Margins:

Discovering Mutuality in Service and Mission (Resources for Reconciliation). InterVarsity Press. Kindle Edition.


The Discipline of the Wesleyan Church. Wesleyan Publishing House. Indianapolis, 2012.

Vanier, Jean. From Brokenness to Community. Paulist Press. Mahwah, 1992.

[1] Hauerwas, Stanley. Approaching the End; Eschatological Reflections on Church, Politics, and Life. Eerdmans. Grand Rapids, 2013. Pg. 222   In the chapter titled Disability: An Attempt to Think With Hauerwas states, “The challenge for anyone who would try to reflect on the suffering of those who are described as disabled is that they must do so from the presumption that they are not disabled.” Perhaps the bodies of the disabled do not work as well as ours but their souls are fully functioning and our souls gasp and grope for life in a world that reduces us to consumers who must prove their worth by efficient and effective production of goods.[1] It seems as if our abilities are what ultimately disable us. He continues on to develop an account of vulnerability drawing from Xavior’s work on Jean Vanier and Fr. Thomas Philippe. Vanier and Philippe frame the discussion around vulnerability. All people find themselves, either early on in life or near the end, to be vulnerable and at the total care and dependence upon others. Though one wonders what gains can be made in calling people vulnerable rather than disabled. On the one hand this appears to overinflate the category making it impossible to actually address what is at issue but on the other it causes the us/them reality to disappear. What will be seen is that friendship is more determinative for the relationship than relationships determined by physical and mental capacities.

[2] The Discipline of the Wesleyan Church. Wesleyan Publishing House. Indianapolis, 2012. Pg. 17

[3] In no way should this “anglelize” our friends which would be another form of dehumanization. Rather, the attention to our friends with disabilities should be that of the attention given to those whom we consider living saints in the able bodied world.   They are approachable, fallible humans who have a close connection with God. From them, one can learn what it means to be a friend of God.

[4] Lk 19:1-10

[5] Mt. 25:31-41

[6] Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2006), 1 Co 12:22–24. Italics mine.

[7] At this one point, a critique could be made against L’Arche in that they are not a confessional organization. By not taking a confessional stance, L’Arche risks losing its identity and its roots in the One who made possible the desire to live with and care for those with disabilities. But places of ministry, which find themselves outside the walls of the church and in the wilderness of the world, survive by their God given wits and wisdom, like Abraham and Sarah journeying towards the promised land.

[8] Nouwen, Henri J. M.. Adam; God’s Beloved. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, 1997. Pg. 27

[9] ibid. 28

[10] Adam did not learn to talk, had hearing impairment, epileptic seizures. “Adam’s father remarks, ‘I think he suffered much, but we never knew because he could not tell us.’” Pg. 24

[11] “Adam was not fully recognized in his church, and it was painful for his parents when they learned that because of his handicap Adam could not receive the sacraments of Eucharist and Confirmation with the other children of his age.” Ibid. 24

[12] Ibid. 31

[13] Ibid. 48

[14] Vanier, Jean. From Brokenness to Community. Paulist Press, Mahwah, 1992. Pg. 9

[15] Ibid. 10

[16] Stanley Hauerwas; Jean Vanier. Living Gently in a Violent World: The Prophetic Witness of Weakness (Resources for Reconciliation) (Kindle Locations 326-329). Kindle Edition.

[17] Kindle Locations 268-269

[18]Heuertz, Christopher L.; Pohl, Christine D. (2010-02-25). Friendship at the Margins: Discovering Mutuality in Service and Mission (Resources for Reconciliation)

[19] That friendship has to be explored as to what makes true friendship is indicative of our world where friendships are established at a click of a button. The nature of friendship that exists between my many Facebook friends and I and the friendship in which I will advocate are at odds with one another. Social network sites symbolize the decay of true friendship marked by community and hospitality.

[20] Ibid. 30

[21] For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross. Col. 1:19-20

[22] Befriending someone merely so you can tell them the gospel is a form of manipulation and a violation of trust. Ibid. 42

[23] Ibid. 29

[24] Ibid. 42 “Such love is self-giving and vulnerable; it puts the other person first”

[25] Ibid. 66

[26] Ibid. 81

[27] Ibid. 81 They further go on to conclude, ” … A disturbing number of congregations make it clear that they do not really want people whose lives are a mess (especially after they’ve become Christians), who aren’t cured of their problems quickly and completely, or who don’t successfully escape troubled circumstances. Our limited patience is evident in how we hide from those with ongoing troubles, how we avoid people with chronic disabilities and those who are dying.”

[28] “Constancy of place seems to me imperative if we are to be Christians who don’t abandon one another in the name of greater goods. You cannot be constantly going and coming as an assistant at L’Arche. Core members love routines, and routines create and are created by familiarity. Familiarity is what makes place “a” place.” Stanley Hauerwas; Jean Vanier. Living Gently in a Violent World: The Prophetic Witness of Weakness (Resources for Reconciliation) (Kindle Locations 348-350). Kindle Edition.

[29] Stanley Hauerwas; Jean Vanier. Living Gently in a Violent World: The Prophetic Witness of Weakness (Resources for Reconciliation) (Kindle Locations 45-47). Kindle Edition.

[30] On more than one occasion, when my dad was not preaching on a Sunday morning, Dennis would loudly say, “Ah, shit! Who is this damn preacher…” This would not be so distracting to the rest of the congregation if it were not for the fact that Dennis sat three rows from the front! Dennis gave us the gift of humility and truth telling. Without him, our Worship services could border on the edge of pretentiousness.

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Celebrating Christmas: The day God became disabled.

It is hard for me to conceive of the god of the philosophers.  You know this god – omniscience, omnipresent, omnipotent and all other “omni” type monikers.  Weakness, contingency, and other creaturely traits don’t fit within the vocabulary, which speaks of this god.  The unmoved mover was Aristotle’s chosen name for this deity, last Thomas Aquinas would Christianize that name and use it as proof for the existence of God.   But the unmoved mover is just that – unmoved, the cause of all causes.  It doesn’t even watch the world as it goes spinning into chaos.  Plato, in his Timeous, went to great lengths to construct a world where this god wasn’t touched by this world, a world of decay and imperfection.   Moral and spiritual darkness, a world in decay without hope or joy shouldn’t impinge upon or concern the god who is.  If, and that is a big and unbelievable if, this god should become, heaven forbid, god incarnate he or she would take on the form of superman, perhaps resembling Nietzsche’s uberman, if not certainly Aristotle’s Magnanimous Man.  He or she would be without defect, without blemish, the sum of physical greatness and mental perfection.


Yet, this is not the God we celebrate on Christmas.  We celebrate the God/man who took on the flesh of a baby born in scandal to poor Jewish parents.  In the broadest of terms, he was born into a socially disabled family.  Disabled by income and by the premarital pregnancy, Joseph and Mary had found themselves at the margins of religious and political life.  Born into the world, the baby Jesus was at the mercy of a teenage parents and even the vary empire who had forced his parents to travel so far for a census.  No one can look at a newly born baby and say this is the sum strength, power, and magnificence for even babies born to be king shit their diapers and suffer colds.  But to celebrate Jesus’ birth isn’t merely the celebration of the birth of some king, it’s the celebration of God coming to earth.

God!  The God who is the ground of all being.  The God who encompasses all of space and time with room to spare, the God who created existence with a word, that God took on this flesh.  Our creeds tell us this was an equal parts event both fully God and Man.  How to explain that event escapes the capacity of language.

For that God to take on this flesh meant that self-imposed limitations must have taken place – limitations not from necessity but out of love for the creature.  How else could we explain it?  Limited God, dare I say it (?), became disabled for our-sakes.  Isn’t that what Paul is getting at in Phi. 2:6-8?  It says,

who, though he was in the form of God,

did not regard equality with God

as something to be exploited,

7 but emptied himself,

taking the form of a slave,

being born in human likeness.

And being found in human form,

8 he humbled himself

and became obedient to the point of death—

even death on a cross.

Jesus gave up the privileges of being God by taking on flesh.  True, unlike those who have disabilities, God chose to enter our world in this way.  For all “able bodied” are disabled spiritually and are unable to see the Light.  God brought the Light to us, as close to us as possible.  Jesus came to us, a tactile God, so that we might feel, touch, hear, and be given ears and eyes once again to see and hear the good news that God has come into the world.

If all of this is true, then any pretense of coming to the level of those with disabilities is demolished not reinforced.  It is demolished in that our disabilities prevent us from seeing correctly. Only in Christ’s divinity, is he both able to meet us as we are and yet see us as we truly are.  That is to say, he meets us in the flesh, in our weakness and contingency.  He smiles, cries, becomes angry, and lives the life of a human being.  But unlike us, he sees us.  He sees us for who we truly are.  We cannot see each other for we cover ourselves up with lies and deception.  The clothes we wear are more than the ones we put on everyday.  Our vision of one another and God is, at best, only partial.  We need one another so as to share with one another the partial, fragmented vision of God we each hold.

The vision God has given us is a mosaic and we each, no matter what physical or mental capacity one might have, hold a fragment of the mosaic.  We cannot know what the full picture might be until we are all tied to one another, bound in the bonds of friendship.  Friendship, that’s what Christ gave to us.  The god of agnostics or the god of philosophers or the god of deists remain foreign to us as strangers but the God who became incarnate 2000 years ago came to be our friend.  So let us this Christmas not give in to the demands of consumerism but free ourselves by entering into friendship not merely with God but with Jesus who became disabled for our sakes.  Perhaps if we can accept friendship with God, we can accept friendship from those with disabilities.

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A Sermon: Who is Christ to reconcile us? Col. 1:15-23

Who is Christ to reconcile us?

15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; 16 for in him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers—all things have been created through him and for him.

Who is Christ to reconcile us?

17 He himself is before all things, and in him all things hold together.

Who is Christ to reconcile us?

18 He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that he might come to have first place in everything. 19 For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, 20 and through him God was pleased to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, by making peace through the blood of his cross.

So what does that mean?

21 And you who were once estranged and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, 22 he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through death, so as to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before him— 23 provided that you continue securely established and steadfast in the faith, without shifting from the hope promised by the gospel that you heard, which has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven. I, Paul, became a servant of this gospel.  (NRSV)

Sandtown Baltimore, a neighborhood in west Baltimore, was devastated by violence, white flight, and economic down turn in the late 60s.  After the assassination of Martin Luther King, the neighborhood erupted with hysteria and crumbled shortly after.  At one time it was a neighborhood that hosted some of the best jazz and blues musicians that have ever graced the presence of this earth.  People such as Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, and John Coltrane.  After the riots, those who had the financial means, both whites and later blacks, escaped to safer places with better schools.  Sandtown, left in this condition, quickly turned into a neighborhood where, the murder rate is double the national average, about half the children live below the poverty line, and nearly a quarter of adults are out of work.  Sandtown, that place where Freddy Gray died from a van ride to the police station.  Oh, the Lord laments over Sandtown.  Who will make things right in Sandtown?

Who are you to reconcile us?  It’s a question to ask when you’re trying to mend fences, who are you to make reconciliation?  I saw this question asked quite a lot last week.  African American friends asking, “who are you to tell me what it will take to reconcile unnecessary police brutality?”  From other friends who ask, “who are you to tell me that police lives don’t matter as much?”  “Who are you to make right the disparities and discriminations that are occurring throughout the world?”  Who are you to fix the world?  

In this morning’s passage from Colossians, we find an ancient hymn or creedal statement that has been used by Paul to show the preeminence of Christ and answers that very question, “who is Christ to reconcile us?”.  Notice how inclusive this picture is.  There isn’t one created bit of the universe that stands apart from God’s creative and redemptive work through Jesus.  How many times do you see the word all?  If you include the word everything (and you should as it is the same word for all in Greek; pas), you see it 8 times attached to Christ and how God the Almighty has worked through Christ in both the creation and redemption of the world.  Drawing from creation and redemption this hymn moves at lightning speeds to display the primacy of Jesus over all created things, even seats of earthly power such as thrones and dominions and spiritual forces such as rulers and powers.  

So I want to flesh this out a little this morning and see where that takes us.  To do that we are going to take some snap shots or snapchat versions of the biblical story so as to see what is actually happening.  


After the first days of Creation, all of creation, especially humanity, has been estranged from one another and from all of the created world.  There was a time when all was truly good and right in the world.  But then two people, our ancestors, came onto the scene.  Perhaps you know the story?  Adam and Eve, in the garden of paradise, in full communion with God and one another, chose to play God, chose autonomy over dependence upon God.  In that moment, a fracture occurred, a discrepancy, a wrong note was played, that reverberated throughout all of creation.  The land and weather no longer cooperated in the production of food.  Pain, emotional and physical, entered into the world.  

By the second generation, brother plotted against brother.  Perhaps you remember that story too?  Cain and Abel, some of Adam and Eve’s children, sought to worship the Lord by offering to God part of what they produced from their labor.  God found Abel’s offering more acceptable than Cain’s.  We don’t know exactly why but that’s what we know.  Rather than come to terms about God’s good pleasure over Abel, Cain envied Abel, became jealous of Abel.  Killed Abel.  That escalated quickly!  

Sin and death came to reign in the world, causing division between family, friends, neighbors, strangers, and all of creation.  The threat of death came to power.  For who wants to die?  So as to survive, people groups formed with promises of protection for one another so as to ensure continuation.  All the isms and phobias, racism, sexism, homophobia, xenophobia and on and on the list goes of how we are all divided from one another by fear of the other, by fear of death, by fear of violence.  The world was a mirror created to reflect back to God God’s goodness and love and that mirror has been shattered and fragmented.  


Who can put this picture back together?  Who can reconcile us back to God and to one another?  


There have been many answers to that question.  


Perhaps if we educate one another on how to treat one another, that will bring reconciliation?  If we learn history and hear of abuses made towards various people groups, then, THEN we will come to terms and reconcile.  Yet, some of the most sophisticated people have caused some of the greatest harm.  Education is a good, God given thing but it’s not going to bring us together.  It won’t make us less racist, homophobic, or xenophobic but it can help.    

Or maybe if counseling is made available so as to psychologically rehabilitate to each person that will bring the world together?  Yet, the rates of people who recover through counseling are abysmal.  Yet, psychology is a good and God given thing.  As Methodists, we affirm the fruits of both the hard and soft sciences.  God has endowed us with reason to understand how things work such as emotions and trauma.  Yes, it provides helpful tools for us to learn about how to speak to one another and listen to one another, but families, friendships, and marriages remain broken.  Psychology by itself won’t bring us together but it can help.  

Perhaps more money and economic prosperity would solve this dilemma.  If we advocate and work hard to sway the decision makers and the power brokers that each person should receive a salary increase, better housing, health and life insurance, then, then we will have peace with one another.  Then we shall find the sin of Adam and Eve reversed and brothers, like Cain and Abel, will no longer kill one another.  Yet, America is one of the most wealthy nations in the the ENTIRE world and we are tearing each other apart.  Working with and on the behalf of the poor is a good and God worthy thing to do, but it won’t bring the classes together.  

Perhaps, the answer is older than time and as current as the present moment, what we have is a God sized problem.

Paul writes to us that Jesus is the image of the invisible God.  The Greek word their is eikon.  Everyone say eikon.  Like an icon used in more formalized worship settings to give a visual of Jesus or of another figure of church history that will cause one to worship God.  Jesus is the icon of the invisible God.  No one has seen God almighty but we have seen Jesus in the Gospels.  If you want to know the kind of God we serve look to Jesus.  Surely, the author has in mind is the entirety of Jesus’s life but specifically points out two moments of Jesus’ life that we should know, the crucifixion and the resurrection.  

Through Jesus’ blood shed on the cross, we are told that all things (how many things), whether in heaven or on earth, all things, have been reconciled through Christ’s blood.  It is by the crucifixion that Christ is murdered, wrongfully executed by the state.  Jesus knows what it is like to be wrongfully murdered by those charged to uphold law and order.  But what gives his blood the power to reconcile the world is not the fact that he was wrongfully put to death — since Cain and Abel, innocent people have been murdered, by those who hold power, those enthroned and those with social and political power –but what gives him power is that he was raised from the dead!  Our passage tells us that Jesus was the first born from the dead, he was the first to be resurrected into new life.  

He broke the power of death, the power that has caused the world to war with itself, he demolished that power.  It was sin that put him on the cross.  It was sin that crucified him.  It was sin that fractured the relationships of Peter to Jesus and Judas to Jesus.  It was sin that warped the views of the religious leaders.  It was sin that made Pilot so weak and spineless in  the face of the people.  It was sin that roused the people into a riot to demand the death of Jesus.  Sin crucified Jesus but it could not keep him in the grave.  Death could not keep Jesus in the grave.  For through Jesus all things were created, and all things are held together in Jesus.  Jesus stands over the world in power and in might but Jesus does not stand against the world but for the world, with the world, and all that is called creation!  

Jesus, fully God, took on human flesh.  Lived amongst us.  Poor.  A beggar.  Homeless.  As a Jew living in the Roman empire, a minority.  Jesus lived on the margins of society, oppressed by the powerful.  Yet, Jesus did not only spend time with those on the margins of life but did indeed eat with the rich and powerful.  Jesus did infact eat with the religious elite, the politically savvy, the business owners, and the bank presidents.  Jesus knew what it was like to have power, authority, and prestige.  But he gave it all up, to condescend to us, to live with us and make his home.  

Jesus blurred the lines of social division and inequality.  He ate with sinners and yet did not sin.  He was hated on but did not hate in return.  He had violence performed against him but did not return violence for violence.  Who is it who can reconcile us?  The answer is older than time, it’s Jesus.  

Now you might think to yourself, “Pastor Matt, that sounds really good but this passage makes it sound as if reconciliation has already happened.  Did you see the news this week about France?  How about last week with all the shootings and bombings.  Doesn’t sound like the world is reconciled back to God to me.”  You’re right.  The world is still broken.  What is evidenced in Colossians and several other passages in the New Testament, is what’s called “already, not yet” logic.  We’ve been reconciled to God now but that has not been put into full effect yet.  It will be but not yet.  It will be when Christ returns in final victory.  God has made peace with all creation but that peace has not fully taken hold. It’s has already happened but has not yet happened.  It’s a tension we feel when we choose to forgive someone who has wronged us but still feel as if it has not yet taken hold of our lives.  

I have a friend whose step-mother kicked him out of the house on a blizzardy morning in North Dakota for seemingly no reason at all.  Luckily, by the good graces of God, he found a place to stay.  But what little meager means he had, he had to stretch further to pay rent etc..  This happened in November.  As you can imagine this strained the relationship between my friend and his father as my friend wanted nothing to do with his step-mother.  The plans to spend Christmas together were decimated.  

The holidays were at hand and so Christmas music filled the air at his work, at every shopping center, and all the classic Christmas movies played on TV nonstop.  Christmas Eve came, as my friend was at work, he heard a familiar tune.  It was Little Drummer Boy.  “I have no gift to bring, that’s fit to give to a king.  Shall I play for you, on my drum?”  It was in this song, this lyric, that God spoke to my friend.  You don’t have gifts to bring me but you could forgive your stepmom.  Play the drum of forgiveness.  Play the beat of reconciliation.  So my friend, after work was over, went to his Father’s house to tell his step-mom that he forgave her.  What a powerful moment as they were able to spend Christmas together.  But you know, my friend, still feels hate and anger from time to time towards his step-mom over that.  He already forgave her, but it has yet to take full effect.  God has reconciled the world through Jesus already but it has yet to take full effect.  

It is so because Christ is the head of the body and has chosen to use the body, that is the church, to bring about peace in the world.   Christians have been charged with carrying on this same work of reconciliation.  And friends, there is work to be done.  For where ever sin has touched this world, reconciliation must be had.  How many things did Christ reconcile?  ALL!  So no wonder we hear of the need to care for creation.  Fallen humanity has abused and used God’s good creation and it needs reconciliation.  No wonder we see different people groups at odds with each other.  No wonder there are so many friends and families struggling to hold it together.  There is work to be done.  Christ, our Lord, invites each of us to participate in this work of reconciliation.  

Partaking in communion teaches us both the posture and the words necessary to participate with Christ in this great work.   It teaches us words like forgive as we have been forgiven.  It teaches us that the work of reconciliation requires a reliance upon Jesus for wisdom and the guidance of the Holy Spirit.  And this is good and right but I wonder if it might make one think that God only cares about interpersonal relationships and not bigger picture issues.  

There are many kinds of reconciliation aside from interpersonal reconciliation.  There is economic, racial, and geographic.  Earlier this week, we had the food bag distribution.  As the participants waited in line to receive their food, I had a long conversation with Sergeant Beth.  She comes to block off the parking lot and to be a presence of law and order.  New to the area, I asked her many questions.  She told me about how many of the food bags will be delivered to other people who cannot get out of their homes.  A few bags of food will be sold so as to buy beer.  She told me that not everyone who receives food is homeless.  Some who are homeless, though, do not want a home.  They prefer to live in a tent and live off the grid, not because they are troublemakers but simply do not want to be on the grid.  Questions about how can we get those persons into homes, are not good questions.  Questions about reconciliation arise out of friendships and learning about people on a first hand basis and not from top down, legislation.  It grows from the grassroots and then it can make decisions that make far sweeping changes.  

The work of racial reconciliation is not done.  The US passed the Civil Rights act in 1964 making possible fair practices for employment, voter registration, and equal treatment of all people.  Yet, this fundamental act, has not made America less racist, though it has helped.  Affirmative Action has not made America less racist, though it has helped.  I confess that I do not know what program would make America less racist but I do know that the Church, the body of Christ, who is the head, can create a space where people can become less racist.  For in Christ, there is neither Jew nor Greek, neither male nor female, neither slave nor free person, but all are one in Christ.  Yes, we can fight for economic equality and racial equality but let us do it as people who have become friends with those who are marginalized by society.  There are at least two places I know where this is happening, Monday morning breakfasts and the community worship services.  In those spaces we have the opportunity to make friends with people who will teach you something about yourself and about the world.  There you will meet Jesus.  

The need for Geographic reconciliation confronts us almost daily.  We are geographically separated from one another in ways that keep us from coming to terms with other reconciling needs.  An example from overseas would be Palestine and Israel.  Christ has reconciled all things whether in heaven or on earth.  Whether here in this space (point to worship space), or in that space (point to other worship space).  Whether on this side of the train tracks or that side of the train track (point to both).  Whether on this side of 95 or that side of 95.  Whether in this country or the countries to the south or the north or the east or the west.  Jesus invites us into the work of reconciliation that work which moves people to new geographic spaces for the purpose of making peace with one another.  Jesus did not make peace by staying in Heaven.  Jesus made peace by dethroning himself and moving into the neighborhood.  

The reason I was in Sandtown, Baltimore, was because I had moved into the hood for a a teaching internship through Duke Divinity.  I was there to learn from and about two churches who worked hand in hand in Sandtown – New Born and New Song churches.  Both churches were racially diverse and doing great things for God.  These two churches do not have a formal place of worship.  Rather each congregation worships in unique locations.  New Song worships in the gym of a school they helped build.  It’s for K-8 and is one of the nicest schools you will ever see.  New Song brought Habitat to Sandtown and consequently have rehabbed over 120 homes for residents.  Without education, without a home, reconciliation will not happen.  

New Born worships in first floor of a fine arts and dance studio they helped to create.  The congregation of Newborn looked around and realized that there wasn’t any funding in public education for the fine arts, for music, for dancing, for cultural artifacts that had been long ago neglected.  So they teach many youth and adults how to dance, how sing, how to create art.  They also looked around and saw that those seeking employment couldn’t find employment with a felony on their record.  They also noticed that they were living in a food desert.  A food desert is a region of a city that doesn’t have access to fresh fruits and vegetables.  With a partnership with a couple of business and the city, New Song leased a city block with buildings that had fallen down, cleared it and then built hoop farms.  Each hoop row produces over two acres of vegetation.  Who did they hire and train to work these hoop farms?  Returning citizens from incarceration, those with felonies.  

The work of God has already begun in Sandtown but has not yet been fully realized.  The work of God through Jesus has already begun in R.M. but has not yet been fully realized.  The work of God through Jesus has already begun in this church but has not been fully realized.  The work of God through Jesus has already begun in your life but has not been fully realized.  I don’t know what God is saying to you this morning.  Perhaps it’s to reconcile with a family member or a friend or to go and learn how to make peace with someone different than yourself.  Or maybe you feel the nudge of the Spirit to reconcile with God?  Whatever it is, know that Jesus, who created you and holds all things together, is with you and for you and able to guide you every step of the way.  Please, do not resist this Spirit this day, but give in to the work of God.  Let’s pray.


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From Desert to Oasis

I was born into, raised, and ordained in the Wesleyan Church.  The Wesleyan Church is a cousin to The UMC.  It evolved out of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1843.  An abolitionist denomination, it has its theological heritage rooted in John Wesley.  I’m the third generation to go into full-time ministry.  I received my call from the Lord to ministry when I was 19.  A few weeks prior, I had given my life to the Lord.  As I was trying to explain to my at-the-time roommate all the changes I was experiencing because of Jesus, I had a moment of clarity.  In that moment, as I explained how Jesus was disrupting and rearranging my life, that I had been created for ministry.  It was a knowledge that I had long known but had forgotten.

Upon receiving the call, I applied to college, something I never thought I would do.  You see, I dropped out of High School when I was 18.  College was never on my radar.  Yet, when the Lord calls and you respond, the Lord clears the way.  I was accepted into Oklahoma Wesleyan University for their Bachelor of Arts in Pastoral Ministries.  

While in college, I acquired a thirst for learning, again, the Lord’s doing.  I love to read and learn about a variety of subjects.  Classic literature, mid-20th century history, philosophy, theology, psychology, and science are some of the subjects that fascinate me.  I “read” Ancient Greek, Hebrew, Modern Spanish and desire to learn Latin.  All of these interests in a person who once proclaimed to his youth pastor, when asked about what he wanted to do when he grew up, “I want to be a professional homeless person.”  I had no plans for the future, no dreams, no desires to stretch and grow as a person.  Thank God for God’s never failing loving kindness.  

It’s odd to think that at one point I had no desire to learn, to read, and to explore the world of ideas.  Certainly, the Lord can make the desert of life into a lush oasis.  Often we write people off as lost causes, yet God looks at those same people as brimming with possibilities.  We may see a desert but God sees a forthcoming oasis.  May we learn together to see one another as God sees each one of us.  

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Failure by Rupert Brooke

Because God put His adamantine fate

Between my sullen heart and its desire,

I swore that I would burst the Iron Gate,

Rise up, and curse Him on His throne of fire.

Earth shuddered at my crown of blasphemy,

But Love was as a flame about my feet;

Proud up the Golden Stair I strode; and beat

Photograph of author in front matter of The co...

Photograph of author in front matter of The collected poems of Rupert Brooke: With a Memoir (Second Impression, Aug 1918). Cropped to remove text and signature. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thrice on the Gate, and entered with a cry —

All the great courts were quiet in the sun,

And full of vacant echoes: moss had grown

Over the glassy pavement, and begun

To creep within the dusty council-halls.

An idle wind blew round an empty throne

And stirred the heavy curtains on the walls.

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